英语动词的不规则变化

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动词的规则变化是后面+ed(或者双写等),但是特殊的动词会有不规则变化。下面是一个变化表,建议记下来。

常用不规则动词表

1.AAA

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
broadcast broadcast broadcast ~ 广播.播放.播送
burst burst burst ~ 爆炸.突然发作
cost cost cost ~ 花费
cut cut cut cutting 割,切
hurt hurt hurt ~ 受伤
hit hit hit hitting 打,撞
let let let letting
put put put putting 放下
read read read ~
rid rid/ridded rid/ridded ridding 使摆脱.使去掉
set set set setting 安排,安置
spread spread spread ~ 展开,传播,涂
spit spit/spat spit/spat spitting 吐痰,
shut shut shut shutting 关上.停止营业

2.AAB

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
beat beat beaten ~ 打败

3.ABA

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
become became become becoming
come came come coming
run ran run running
overcome overcame overcome overcoming 克服.战胜.征服

4.ABB

 

(1)在动词原形后加一个辅音字母d, t或ed构成过去式或过去分词。

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned ~ 燃烧
deal dealt dealt ~ 解决.处理.分配
dream reamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt ~ 做梦
hear heard heard ~ 听见.听说
hang hanged/ hung hanged/ hung ~ 绞死,悬挂
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt ~ 学习
light lit/lighted lit/lighted ~ 点燃, 照亮
mean meant meant ~ 意思.意味.用意
prove proved proven/proved proving 证明, 证实,试验
shine shone/shined shone/shined shining 使照耀,使发光
show showed showed/shown ~ 展示, 给...看
smell smelled/smelt smelled/smelt ~ 闻, 嗅
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded ~ 加速
spell spelled/spelt spelled/spelt ~ 拼写
wake waked/woke waked/woken waking 醒来,叫醒, 激发

 

(2)把动词原形的最后一个辅音字母“d”改为“t” 构成过去式或过去分词。

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
build built built ~ 建筑
bend bent bent ~ 弯曲.屈服
lend lent lent ~ 借给
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt ~ 改建, 重建
send sent sent ~
spend spent spent ~ 花费

 

(3)原形→ought →ought

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
bring brought brought ~ 带来
buy bought bought ~
fight fought fought ~ 打架.战斗
think thought thought ~ 思考,想
seek sought sought ~ 寻找.追求.搜索

 

(4)原形→aught →aught

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
catch caught caught ~ 捉,抓
teach taught taught ~ 教.教授

 

(5)变其中一个元音字母

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
awake awoke awoke/awoked awaking 唤醒.唤起
dig dug dug digging 挖掘.钻研.搜集
feed fed fed ~ 喂养.饲养
flee fled fled ~ 逃避.逃跑.消失
find found found ~ 发现,找到
get got got/gotten getting 得到
hold held held ~ 拥有.握住
lead led led ~ 引导,领导
meet met met ~ 遇见
sit sat sat ~
shoot shot shot ~ 射击
spit spit/spat spit/spat spitting 吐痰,
stick stuck stuck ~ 刺入,粘住
strike struck/stricken struck striking 撞击.冲击.罢工
win won won winning 赢.获胜

 

(6)原形→□lt/pt/ft→□lt/pt/ft

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
feel felt felt ~ 感到
keep kept kept ~ 保持
leave left left leaving 离开
sleep slept slept ~ 睡觉
sweep swept swept ~
weep wept wept ~ 哭泣.流泪.哀悼

 

(7)其它

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
lay laid laid ~ 下蛋, 放置
pay paid paid ~ 付款
say said said ~ 说.讲.表示
stand stood stood ~
understand understood understood ~ 明白
lose lost lost losing 失去
have had had having 有.持有.从事
make made made making 制造.安排.构成
sell sold sold ~
tell told told ~ 告诉
retell retold retold ~ 重复.复述
wind wound wound ~ 缠绕.转动.迂回

5.ABC

 

(1)原形→过去式→原形+(e)n

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
blow blew blown ~ 吹风.喘气.叫
drive drove driven driving 驾驶
draw drew drawn ~ 画画.绘制.拖拽
eat ate eaten ~
fall Fell fallen ~ 落下.跌倒
forbid forbad/forbade forbidden forbidding 禁止.不许
give gave given giving 给.提供.授予
grow grew grown ~ 生长.种植
forgive forgot forgiven forgiving 原谅, 饶恕
know knew known ~ 知道
mistake mistook mistooken mistaking 弄错; 误解,
overeat overate overeaten ~ (使)吃过量
prove proved proven/proved proving 证明, 试验
take took taken taking 拿.获得.接受
throw threw thrown ~ 抛.扔.掷
ride rode ridden riding 骑.乘车
see saw seen ~ 看见.了解、领会
sew sewed sewn ~ 缝制.缝合
show showed showed/shown ~ 展示.出示.说明
shake shook shaken shaking 摇动.震动
write wrote written writing

(2)原形→过去式→过去式+(e)n

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
break broke broken ~ 打破.打碎
choose chose chosen choosing 选择
get got got/gotten getting 得到
hide hid hidden hiding 隐藏
forget forgot forgotten forgetting 忘记.忽略
freeze froze frozen freezing 冷冻.结冰
speak spoke spoken ~ 说话.谈话.演讲
steal stole stolen ~ 偷窃.窃取.偷盗

 

(3)变单词在重读音节中的元音字母“i”分别为“a”(过去式)和“u”(过去分词)

[i→a →u]                                   

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
begin began begun beginning 开始
drink drank drunk ~
sing sang sung ~
sink sank sunk ~ 下沉, 沉没
swim swam swum swimming 游泳
ring rang rung ~ 戒指.环围住

 

(4)其它

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义
be(am,is,are) was/ were been ~
bear bore born/borne ~ 负担, 忍受
do did done ~
fly flew flown ~ 飞行
go went gone ~
lie lay(lied) lain(lied) lying 躺.位于(说谎)
wear wore worn ~ 穿
bite bit bitten biting 咬.刺痛
tear tore torn ~ 流泪.撕破.猛冲
 

注:“~”表示在动词原形后直接加ing

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